Diagnosis of soil and plant nutrient constraints in small-scale ground nut (Arachis Hyopaea) production systems of Western Kenya using infrared spectroscopy

Soil fertility degradation is a major problem in Africa leading to food insecurity, ecosystem degradation and poverty. Nutrient depletion and disease epidemics have contributed to a decline in groundnut yields of 25% in the past decade in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy (IR) may permit rapid and cost effective analysis of tropical soil nutrients. Trial and error and field observations methods used by farmers are inefficient and have led to inappropriate soil nutrient management strategies and options in small-scale crop production systems.

Factors influencing adoption of dairy tecchnologies in Coast Province, Kenya

Agriculture in Kenya has continued being the back bone of the economy and this has been evidenced by the attention it has always received from the government. The recent government blue print for the Ministry of Livestock Development, the National Livestock policy like previous government policy documents notably, Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture and Vision 2030, put a lot of emphasis on value addition of livestock products with dairy given a lot of prominence.

Dairy Cattle Breeding Policy For Kenyan Smallholders: An Evaluation Based On A Demographic Stationary State Productivity Model

A study was done based on records generated in the periocl 1980- 1992 in 398 smallholder herds in 23 districts located in the high and medium potential areas at low, medium and high aItitudes to evaluate two long term breeding policy options in the smallholder, grade dairy cattle populations by use of a demographic stationary state productivity model-PRY. The first option was the current policy, where there was equal sharing of imported and locally progeny tested AI semen for breeding both the large- and smallscale herds.

Generalised demodicosis in a Friesian heifer from a zero-grazing unit

A Friesian heifer with generalised skin lesions was slaughtered after unsuccessful treatment. It had thickened skin with lumps and nodules, with the severely affected parts thrown into folds over the eyelids, ears, most of the head, neck, legs and perineal area. The affected skin was soft and squamous in appearance. On postmortem examination, all the skin layers were affected and were 10–22 mm thick. There was also lymphadenopathy. Histological examination showed the presence of dermatitis characterised by follicular inflammation.

An economic analysis of the constraints in the production and marketing of milk in Kilifi District of the Coast province of Kenya

This study investigates the milk production and marketing system in Kilifi District. The purpose is to examine the causes of high producer price in the informal sector and the decline in milk production in Kilifi District. The study is based on primary data obtained by interviewing 102 dairy farmers and 76 institutional milk consumers in Kilifi District. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis.

Use of test-day records to predict first lactation 305-day milk yield using artificial neural network in Kenyan Holstein–Friesian dairy cows

The study is focused on the capability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict next month and first lactation 305-day milk yields (FLMY305) of Kenyan Holstein–Friesian (KHF) dairy cows based on a few available test days (TD) records in early lactation. The developed model was compared with multiple linear regressions (MLR). A total of 39,034 first parity TD records of KHF dairy cows collected over 102 herds were analyzed. Different ANNs were modeled and the best performing number of hidden layers and neurons and training algorithms retained.

Survival of Holstein-Friesian heifers on commercial dairy farms in Kenya

Herd health and adaptability are of concern in dairy herds in the tropics because of persistent exposure to multiple stresses of low quality and quantity feeding, heat stress, high disease and parasitic incidences, poor husbandry and breeding practices. The combined effect of mortality and culling is estimated to cause losses of 40 to 60% of dairy heifers conceived or born in the tropics. This study applies survival analysis techniques to evaluate important factors influencing survival to first calving in Holstein-Friesian cattle raised on large-scale farms in Kenya.

Luteolytic effect of prostaglandin F2α in Boran and Boran × Friesian cross-bred heifers

The luteolytic effect of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) during the confirmed luteal phase of the oestrous cycle was evaluated in ten Boran and ten Boran × Friesian cross-bred heifers. Following injection with 25 mg Lutalyse, animals were bled every 6 h for 96 h and plasma progesterone (P4) determined by the ELISA technique. Borans had significantly (P < 0·05) smaller corpora lutea (12·01±0·72 ν. 17·03±2·10 mm) and responded faster to PGF2α injection (65·57±1·40 ν. 78·27±2·18 h) than the cross-bred heifers.

The effect of different levels of concentrate at different phases of lactation on milk production of lactating dairy cows

Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to determine the effects of reallocation of a fixed amount of concentrates during the different phases of lactation on milk yield (both during period of feeding and total lactation yield) and live weight changes. The cows were randomly allocated to treatment groups as they calved. The design was randomised complete block design. There were two breeds {Friesians (405±21 kg) and Ayrshires (394±18 kg) each with nine cows} and three parities (2, 4 and 6) making six blocks. The cows were randomly assigned to the three treatments.

Microbiological quality of camel milk along the market chain and its correlation with food borne illness among children and young adults in Isiolo, Kenya

The study was done to determine the microbiological quality of raw camel milk along the informal market chain and to assess risk factors in symptoms of food-borne illnesses and the role of camel milk in the diet of camel pastoralists. Camel milk samples were collected from the milking point, camel milk first collection point (primary collectors) in the local market center and at the final market in Nairobi.

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African Dryland Institute for Sustainability , University of Nairobi