Micro-organisms Associated With Clinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows In Kiambu District Of Kenya

A total of 1187 milk samples collected over a 6-year period (1982-1987) from cows with clinical mastitis were cultured for bacteria. 29.7% yielded gram positive organisms, 1.8% yeast, while 31.2% did not yield any organism. Coliforms (29.8% of total isolates) were the main pathogens, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci and Corynebacterium [Actinomyces] pyogenes. Most organisms were susceptible to tetracyclines, neomycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin and least susceptible to sulfonamides.

Lactation characteristics of Dutch Friesian cows under semi-arid conditions

Data on 871 calving and lactation records of Dutch Friesian cows in their second parity and above kept at the National Animal Research Centre, Naivasha were analyzed to investigate the effects of year and season of calving , parity, actual age at calving within parity and degree of calving ease 305 –a day (305 DMY) and lactation length (LL). The records were made over a period of 12 years, from 1971 to 1987. Effects of year season of birth, calving, parity and degree of calving ease were highly significant (p< 0.001). Of the two traits (p< 0.001).

Characterization of follicular dynamics in the Kenyan Boran cow

Follicular dynamics is one of the most important subjects in ovarian physiology. In cows and heifers, it is characterized by waves of follicular growth and regression. This has been largely studied in European breeds while studies on Zebu cattle ( Bos indicus ) are limited. Differences between breeds of cattle exist and this information has been used to establish correct ovulation parameters and management procedures for these breeds. This study aimed at investigating the follicular dynamics of the Kenyan Boran cow ( Bos indicus ) during its estrous cycle.

Assessment of the efficiency of dairy cow evaluation methods.

A total of 956 Friesian cows with multiple lactation records, spanning a period of 22 years (1966 to 1987), were genetically evaluated by computing four different indices for each animal (Kenya). The indices were Adjusted Least Square Mean (ALSM), Expected Real Producing Ability (ERPA), Expected Breeding Value (EBV) and Predicted Breeding Value (PBV). Two parameter combinations of heritability (h2)=0.20 and repeatability (t)=0.43, generated were from the data, and h2=0.25 and t=0.45, averages of estimates obtained from literature were employed.

Valuation of cow attributes by conjoint analysis: A case study of Western Kenya

Better dairy production could reduce poverty and improve nutrition in western Kenya, but the requisite technologies have not been widely adopted. This study collected dairy cow attributes from 630 households to evaluate what factors influence smallholder farmers to adopt technologies. Conjoint analysis was used to compute the marginal rate of substitution between attributes, marginal willingness to pay, and marginal willingness to accept. Two ethnic groups had the highest willingness to pay for cattle with a high milk yield and low feed requirement.

Effect of feeding system on adequacy of diet minerals for lactating cows

To what extent different sources of feed cover the mineral requirements of lactating cows in the absence of mineral supplementation was studied. Lactating Friesians, Ayrshires and their crosses with zebu were used in 90-day trials. Feeding systems consisted of napier (Pennisetum purpureum) grass and dairy meal for zero-grazed cows; concentrates, various fodder crops and pasture for cows under semi-zero grazing; and concentrates and mixed pasture species for cows under grazing. A mineral supplement was provided for all cows.

Postpartum reproductive performance of dairy cows in medium and large scale farms in Kiambu and Nakuru districts of Kenya

The goal of a reproductive management programme is to ensure that cows conceive within given time limit for optimal production and maximum profitability. In intensive dairy production systems in temperate countries, a calving interval of 12.5 months is dependent on early estrus detection and a short calving to conception interval of less than 90 days and is rated as economically beneficial. Reproductive performance of dairy cows in Kenya has only been evaluated in the smallholder production systems for which it is described as fair to poor.

Prevalence of sole haemorrhages and its correlation with subclinical and chronic laminitis in dairy cows

Prevalence and risk factors of laminitis were determined in 300 dairy cows from 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed dairy farms in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. Lameness was assessed using a universally recognized locomotion scoring system. Claws were examined and 1-2mm thick layer of the horn of the sole was trimmed-off to further expose underlying lesions. Location of lesions on the under-side of the claws was recorded corresponding to 6 universally recognized zones. Prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21 % respectively.

Ano-rectal squamous cell carcinoma in a cow and incidence of bovine intestinal tumours in Kabete, Kenya

Tumours of the intesnne in cattte and other domestic animals are rarely encountered Carcinomas of the rumen and small intestines have been observed, but the large mtesnnes mcludlng Ihe rectum are seldom affected. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus ano rectum was observed In an adult snes.en Cow, and this was confirmed on both gross and histolological examination. A twenty year survey of neoplasms of the Intestines In cattle from post mortem reports In the Vet.

The Use of Faecal Progestin Measurements to Monitor Reproductive Activity in Mashona Cows in a Smallholder Farming Area of Zimbabwe

The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of progesterone (P4) in the peripheral circulation and progestins in the faeces of cows in a smallholder farming area and to monitor the ovarian activity of such cows. The study was carried out in Sanyati smallholder farming area, located 250 km southwest of Harare. Blood and faecal samples for P4 and progestin determination, respectively, were obtained once a week from 35 Mashona type cows that belonged to farmers from three different villages.

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African Dryland Institute for Sustainability , University of Nairobi