Effect of allocation of fixed amounts of concentrates on milk yields and fertility of dairy cows

Nine Friesian (405+21 kg) and nine Ayrshire (394+ 18 kg) lactating dairy cows were used to determine the effects of reallocation of afixed amount of concentrate feed to different phases of lactation on milk yield. They were blocked by breed and parity into six blocks and randomly assigned within block to the three treatments in a randomised complete block design.

An assessment of the mineral supply to dairy cows fed mixed diets

In on-farm trials in Kenya, a total of 18 lactating cows were fed for 3 months on various types of fodder, pasture and concentrate in zero-grazing, semi zero-grazing and grazing systems of smallholder milk production. Overall, daily intake of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium averaged 46.7±14.9, 32.2±12.9, 31.2±10.9 and 16.9±7.3 g, respectively. The results showed that the diets were deficient in Ca for heavy and high-producing cows, but adequate for low-producing cows.

Retrospective study of foot conditions in dairy cows in urban and periurban areas of Kenya

A retrospective study was carried out to determine categories, patterns and outcomes of foot conditions in dairy cows from smallholder units in and around Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 625 hospital case records of dairy cows admitted and treated for foot conditions from 1981 to 2006 at the Large Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. The records were from cows that had been through one or more parities. Data included type of foot lesion, the affected limb and the claw, and the outcome of treatment.

Effects of parity and previous parous status on reproductive and productive performance of Kenya Boran cows

A total of 16 220 calving intervals (CI), calving rates (CR), and 12 532 weaning weight records of Kenya Boran cows and calves from five ranches, distributed in three different ecological zones were analysed to estimate effects of parity, previous parous status (PPS), and sex of calf on reproductive and productive traits. Reproductive traits were CI and CR, while productive traits comprised 270-day weaning weight (calf 270) and two different productivity indices: cow index I and cow index II. The data were analysed by the least squares method using a fixed model.

Total Mixed Rations Versus Traditional feeding of Dairy Cows: \Vhich way to go

An importar.t nutritional management consideration to achieve and maintain high production in dairy cows is relted to the allocation of feeds during each day. One way of uoing this is to maintain a proper balance of nutrients thus minimising fluctuations in the rumen, maximize digestion and ensure a steady flow of nutrients to the mammary gland. A continuous supply of nutrients is required by both rumen microorganisms and body tissues in the dairy cow.

Coat colour: its relevance and influence on reproductive and production performance in Boran Cows

Data on 680 heifers, 1894 calving and 1014 calves of Kenya Boran cattle, covering periods between 11 and 23 years, were used to assess the influence of coat colour and factors such as year and month of birth, sex, parity, most previous parous status and cow coat colour on age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), calving rate (CR), stillbirth rates (STBR), abortion rates (ABR) and weaning rates (WR), 270-day adjusted calf weight (Calf 270) and two cow productivity indices.

A Case of Trichoepithelioma in a Cow

A six year old Friesian cow from the Faculty farm was referred to the University of Nairobi’s Large Animal Clinic with an ulcerated and infected mass below the left ear. On its dorsal aspect was a smaller mass measuring 2 cm. in diameter. The growth was surgically excised, the tissues fixed in 10 % formalin and submitted for histopathological characterization. The histopathological findings of increased number of hair follicles and increased numbers of keratinized cells were consistent with a trichoepithelioma.

Cow-calf Relationships in Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa)

The duration and intensity of the cow-calf bond during lying out, calving pools and nursery herds has been analysed in a wild population of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa). Field behaviour observations were made on naturally marked and radio-collared giraffe. Radio-tracking was used to follow and observe giraffe of a known age for up to 1½ years. The giraffe calf participates in various calf sub-groups while the cow travels to browse and water. A strong maternal bond exists between the giraffe cow and calf until the cow's next calving.

Performance of dairy cows under “one cow program” in Northern Rwanda

In 2006, the government of Rwanda started “One cow program” whereby a dairy cow is given to a poor family in order improve household nutrition and incomes through milk consumption and sell of extra milk. To document the productive and reproductive performance of cows owned by beneficiaries of “One cow program” and to compare with those owned by non-beneficiaries, data was collected in 5 sectors of Gicumbi District, Northern Rwanda. A total of 400 farmers (300 beneficiaries and 100 non-beneficiaries) were randomly selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire.

The effects of endoparasites on the reproductive performance of on-farm sheep in the Ethiopian highlands

In 1988 and 1989, the effects of endoparasites on reproductive performance of on-farm sheep were studied at 5 sites in the Ethiopian highlands using nematode eggs per gram (EPG) counts, treamatode EPG and packed-cell volume (PCV). Mean litter size, lambing interval, annual reproductive rate and abortion rate were 1.04 to 1.33, 216 to 263 days, 1.7 to 2.1 and 1.3 to 6.5 percent, respectively, in different sites.

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African Dryland Institute for Sustainability , University of Nairobi