Motile aeromonads associated with rainbow trout (onchoryncus mykiss) mortality in Kenya.

A disease outbreak in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) on the slopes of Mount Kenya was investigated and the findings are discussed. Clinical signs included various degrees of eye pathology, cutaneous haemmorhage, ulceration, internal haernrnorhage and blood tinged mucocatarrhal enteritis. Approximately 60% of the broodstock and 45% of yearling stock were affected. Parasitological investigation revealed infestation with Trichodina sp. and Chilodonella sp. Bacteriological investigation found Aeromollas hydrophila and AeroTllOlI(lS caviae as the cause of the septicaemic condition.

Field assessment of the effect of cumulative soil loss on soil productivity

Soil erosion affects physical and chemical soil properties by reducing water infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity, soil fertility and Ieading to deterioration of soil structure. Research on the relationship between erosion and soil physical and chemical properties has been conducted (Battison et al., L98l; Becher et al., 1985; Frye et al.,1982) but few such studies have been carried out in the tropics (Mbagwu et al., 1984; Yost et a1.,1985; Lal, 1985; Belay,1992; Casanova et al., 1987; Merete, 1992).

Household labour allocation to forest extraction and other activities in areas adjacent to tropical forests: the case of Kakamega forest, Western Kenya

Communities adjacent to forests are faced with a challenge of balancing their labour allocation decisions to the different household activities. This study involves an empirical examination of the determinants of households labour allocation decisions with respect to three different activities identified as important in the study area; agriculture, forest and non-farm. This was done by estimating a labour share model similar to standard models of commodity or factor demand, such as the Almost Ideal Demand Systems (AIDS) model.

Export Standards, Market Institutions and Smallholder Farmer Exclusion from Fresh Export Vegetable High Value Chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia

Many African countries are diversifying exports into fresh export vegetables, grown mainly by smallholder farmers. However, markets for these new products have stringent safety standards. This paper examines the green bean high value chain (HVC) for African exports to Europe to identify the critical points at which exporters strictly enforce buyers’ quality requirements and the risk of exclusion of family farmers at these points. It then discusses the strategies African countries have used to get-around these challenges and maintain participation of some farmers.

Reaction of potato c~lt!vars ,to ralston!~ solana cearumin Kenya

A survey of bactenal wilt (BW) incidence was carried out in three potato producing districts of Kenya, namely, Nyeri, Nyandarua, and Meru in 1997. The survey was carried out in 30 randomly selected farms in each district. Incidence of BW was highest (18.8%) in Nyeri district, intermediate (16.7%) in Meru and lowest (10.4%) in . Nyandarua. A significant and negative correlation (p=O.05; r = -0.34) between bacterial wilt incidence and altitude was observed.

A Qualitative Risk Assessment of Kenya for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) for Purposes of Exportation of Cooked Pork Frankfurters to USA

Kenya like other developing countries requires foreign exchange to meet the many challenges facing it and relies heavily on agriculture for this. The pig population in Kenya constitutes 5% of livestock contributing less than 1.0% Agricultural domestic product. The pig industry provides employment and supplies pork and pork products to the tourist sector, exports to other African countries, Middle East- Bahrain & South Arabia.

Alcohol abuse among the household heads and its effects on the family: a study of Kalawani location, Mbooni district.

The study looked at the effects of alcohol abuse by the house head on the family institution. Alcohol- abuse is irresponsible drinking where one drinks at the expense of his health or discharging his duties. The aim of the study was to establish the perceptions of Kalawani residents on alcohol- abuse and its effects on the family. The study objectives were to determine the level of alcohol- abuse at Kalawani location, to establish the causes and the effects as well as the ways of coping employed by alcohol-abusers, their families and neighbors.

Impact of civil war on coffee farmers' household income in Burundi: A case study of ruhororo commune, ngozi province

The study investigated the impact of the civil war on the coffee farmer's household income (CFHI) in Ruhororo zone in Burundi. The study focused on the farmer's coffee income at the household level after the war that has led to increased levels of poverty. Coffee is a leading cash crop in Burundi both at the communal and national economic levels, with 60% oftotal output being exported. However, this precious crop has experienced several bottlenecks due to the civil war that struck Burundi from October 1993 and resulted in a decrease in income among coffee farmers.

Price and weather risk management practices in the sugar industry in Kenya

The study sought to find out if price and weather risks management instruments are applied in the sugar industry sub sector in Kenya and if so, whether the instruments are effective. A guided questionnaire was used and face to face interview was also conducted. In some cases, telephone interview was administered to gather primary data. A response of 100% for primary data was achieved and the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.

The Desert Margins Programme Approaches in Upscaling Best-Bet Technologies in Arid and Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

Kenya’s land surface is primarily arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) which account for 84% of the total land area. The Desert Margins Programme (DMP) in Kenya has made some contribution to understanding which technology options have potential in reducing land degradation in marginal areas and conserving biodiversity through demonstrations, testing of the most promising natural resource management options, developing sustainable alternative livelihoods and policy guidelines, and replicating successful models.

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